1. National Records of Scotland. Deaths involving coronavirus; 2022.
  2. The Health Foundation. COVID-19 impact inquiry; 2021.
  3. Carnegie UK. National Performance Framework Next Steps; 2022.
  4. Gibbs E. How has deindustrialisation shaped debates about Scottish independence? February 2022.
  5. Walsh D, McCartney G, Collins C, Taulbut M, Batty GD. History, politics and vulnerability: explaining excess mortality in Scotland and Glasgow; May 2016.
  6. McCartney G, Walsh D, Whyte B & Collins C. Has Scotland always been the ‘sick man’ of Europe? An observational study from 1855 to 2006; Eur J Public Health. 2012 Dec; 22(6): 756–76.
  7. National Records of Scotland. Healthy Life Expectancy in Scotland; 2022.
  8. Scottish Government. Long-term monitoring of health inequalities: March 2022 report; 2022.
  9. Gardiner L. Stagnation Generation: The case for renewing the intergenerational contract. Resolution Foundation; 2016.
  10. Scottish Parliament. Tackling Health Inequalities in Scotland; 2022.
  11. Office for Budget Responsibility. Economic and fiscal outlook – November 2022, 2022.
  12. Audit Scotland. Scotland’s public finances, challenges and risks; 2022.
  13. The Health Foundation. Unequal pandemic, fairer recovery: The COVID-19 impact inquiry report; 2021.
  14. British Social Attitudes. Taxation, welfare, and inequality; 2022.
  15. Richardson E, Taulbut M, Robinson M, Pulford A, McCartney G. The contribution of changes to tax and social security to stalled life expectancy trends in Scotland: a modelling study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2021; 75(4): 365–370.
  16. McCartney G, Walsh D, Fenton L, Devine R. Resetting the course for population health: evidence and recommendations to address stalled mortality improvements in Scotland and the rest of the UK. Glasgow; Glasgow Centre for Population Health/University of Glasgow: 2022.
  17. Office for National Statistics. Avoidable mortality in Great Britain; 2022.
  18. National Records of Scotland. Drug-related deaths in Scotland in 2020. Edinburgh; National Records of Scotland: 2021. Deaths from ‘diseases of despair’ in Britain: comparing suicide, alcohol-related and drug-related mortality for birth cohorts in Scotland, England and Wales, and selected cities. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2021; 75(12): 1195–201. doi: 10.1136/jech-2020-216220 [published Online First: 2021/05/29]
  19. The Health Foundation. Living in poverty was bad for your health long before COVID-19.
  20. Scottish Government. Scottish Child Payment: Interim evaluation; 2022.
  21. The Health Foundation. Evidence hub: What drives health inequalities; 2022.
  22. Resolution Foundation. Setting the record straight; 2019.
  23. Institute for Fiscal Studies. COVID-19 and the career prospects of young people; 2020.
  24. The Health Foundation. What the quality of work means for our health; 2020.
  25. The Health Foundation. Is poor health driving a rise in economic inactivity? 2022.
  26. Tweed E, et al. Premature mortality in people affected by co-occurring homelessness, justice involvement, opioid dependence, and psychosis: a retrospective cohort study using linked administrative data; 2022. Lancet Public Health. e733–43.
  27. Bramley G, Fitzpatrick S, Sosenko F. Hard Edges Scotland; 2019.
  28. Kat Smith, et al, forthcoming.
  29. Institute for Government. ‘Austerity’ in public services: lessons from the 2010s; 2022.
  30. Fraser of Allander. Health Inequalities in Scotland: Trends in the socioeconomic determinants of health in Scotland; 2022.
  31. Institute for Fiscal Studies. Young people increasingly concentrated in low-paid occupations, and young men increasingly struggling to progress – even before COVID-19; 2020.
  32. Resolution Foundation. No country for young men; 2017.
  33. Public Health Scotland. A& E activity and waiting times; 2022.
  34. Public Health Scotland. Inpatient, Day Case and Outpatient Stage of Treatment Waiting Times; 2022.
  35. Ofgem. Latest energy price cap announced by Ofgem. Ofgem; 2022
  36. Scottish Government. Cost of Living Crisis; 2022.,or%20self%2Drationing%20energy%20use
  37. Joseph Roundtree Foundation. From pandemic to cost of living crisis: low-income families in challenging times; 2022.
  38. Scottish Government, Scottish Executive. Improving Health in Scotland: The Challenge; 2003.
  39. McHendrick J, et al. Closing the opportunity gap programme: Phase 1 Evaluation,
  40. Scottish Government. Equally Well: Report of the Ministerial Task Force on Health Inequalities; 2008.
  41. Scottish Government. Scotland’s public health priorities; 2018.
  42. University of Glasgow. The Christie Commission 10 Years on: Reflections on progress and areas for action; 2021.
  43. Scottish Food Coalition. A good food nation for Scotland: Why and how; 2022
  44. Scottish Government. Christie Commission on the future delivery of public services; 2011.
  45. Scottish Government. National Performance Outcomes; 2022.

Research published as part of the review

Diffley Partnership. Health inequalities in Scotland: Public engagement research. Report by The Diffley Partnership; 2022 (

Fraser of Allander. Health inequalities in Scotland: Trends in the socio-economic determinants of health in Scotland; 2022 (

IPPR Scotland. Tackling the social determinants of health inequalities: A review of Scottish powers; 2023.

IPPR Scotland. Translating ambition into outcomes: A review of three policy case studies; 2023.

MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, University of Glasgow. Health inequalities in Scotland. Trends in deaths, health and wellbeing, health behaviours, and health services since 2000; 2022 (

Nesta. Review of health inequalities in Scotland: Stakeholder engagement insight; 2022 (