1. Health Foundation, The King’s Fund and the Nuffield Trust. Closing the gap: key areas for action in the health and care workforce. 2019. Available from:
  2. NHS England. The NHS long term plan. 2019. Available from:
  3. NHS England and BMA. Investment and evolution: A five-year framework for GP contract reform to implement The NHS Long Term Plan. 2019. Available from:
  4. NHS England. Network Contract Directed Enhanced Service: Contract specification 2019/20. 2019. Available from:
  5. NHS England, British Medical Association. Network Contract Directed Enhanced Service, Guidance for 2019/20 in England. 2019. Available from:
  6. NHS England. Comprehensive model of personalised care [infographic]. Available from:
  7. NHS England. Five year forward view. 2014. Available from:
  8. NHS England. General practice forward view. 2016. Available from:
  9. NHS England. Next steps on the NHS five year forward view. 2017. Available from:
  10. Kay A. The abolition of the GP fundholding scheme: a lesson in evidence-based policy making. British Journal of General Practice. 2002; 52(475): 141–4.
  11. Moran V, Checkland K, Coleman C, Spooner S, Gibson J, Sutton M. General practitioners’ view of clinically-led commissioning: cross sectional survey in England. BMJ Open. 2017;7. Available from:
  12. Rosen R, Kumpunen S, Curry N, Davies A, Pettigrew L et al. Is bigger better? Lessons for large-scale general practice. Nuffield Trust; 2016.
  13. Kumpunen S, Curry N, Farnworth M, Rosen R. Collaboration in general practice: Surveys of GP practice and clinical commissioning groups. Nuffield Trust and Royal College of General Practitioners; 2017. Available from:
  14. NHS England. Primary care networks: Frequently asked questions. 2019. Available from:
  15. Forbes L, Forbes, H, Sutton M, Checkland K, Peckham S. How widespread is working at scale in English general practice? 2019. Available from:
  16. Pettigrew LM, Kumpunen S, Mays N, Rosen R, Posaner R. The impact of new forms of large-scale general practice provider collaborations on England’s NHS: A systematic review. British Journal of General Practice. 2018; 68(668): e168–e77.
  17. Hull S, Chowdhury TA, Mathur R, Robson J. Improving outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes using general practice networks: a quality improvement project in east London. BMJ Quality & Safety. 2014; 23(2): 171–6.
  18. Pawa J, Robson J, Hull S. Building managed primary care practice networks to deliver better clinical care: A qualitative semi-structured interview study. British Journal of General Practice. 2017; 67(664): e764-e74.
  19. Kumpunen S, Rosen R, Kossarova L, Sherlaw-Johnson C. Primary care home: Evaluating a new model of primary care. Nuffield Trust, London; 2017.
  20. Pettigrew LM, Kumpunen S, Rosen R, Posaner R, Mays N. Lessons for ‘large-scale’ general practice provider organisations in England from other inter-organisational healthcare collaborations. Health Policy. 2019; 123(1): 51–61.
  21. Fulop N, Protopsaltis G, Hutchings A, King A, Allen P, Normand C, et al. Process and impact of mergers of NHS trusts: Multicentre case study and management cost analysis. British Medical Journal. 2002; 325(7358): 246.
  22. Guthrie B, Davies H, Greig G, Rushmer R, Walter I et al. Delivering health care through managed clinical networks (MCNs): Lessons from the North. Report for the National Institute for Health Research Service Delivery and Organisation programme; 2010.
  23. Baeza JI, Fitzgerald L, McGivern G. Change capacity: The route to service improvement in primary care. Quality in Primary Care. 2008; 16(6): 401–407.
  24. Roland M, Barber N, Howe A, Imison C, Rubin G. The future of primary health care: Creating teams for tomorrow. Health Education England; 2015.
  25. Freeman G. Hughes J. Continuity of care and the patient experience. The King’s Fund; 2010.
  26. Barker I, Steventon A, Deeny S. Association between continuity of care in general practice and hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions: cross sectional study of routinely collected patient data. BMJ. 2017; 365: J84.
  27. Ham C. GP budget holding: Lessons from across the pond and from the NHS. University of Birmingham; 2010.
  28. Le Grand J, Mays N, Mulligan JA. Learning from the NHS internal market. The King’s Fund Publishing; 1998.
  29. Smith J, Mays N, Dixon J, Goodwin N, Lewis R et al. A review of the effectiveness of primary care-led commissioning and its place in the NHS. Health Foundation; 2004.
  30. Goodwin N, Naylor C, Robertson R, Curry N. Practice-based commissioning: Reinvigorate, replace or abandon? The King’s Fund; 2008.
  31. Miller R, Peckham S, Coleman A, McDermott I, Harrison S et al. What happens when GPs engage in commissioning? Two decades of experience in the English NHS. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. 2016; 21(2): 126–33.
  32. Smith J, Sibthorpe B. Divisions of general practice in Australia: how do they measure up in the international context? Australia and New Zealand Health Policy. 2007(4); 15.
  33. Scottish School of Primary Care. Evaluation of new models of primary care. 2018. Available from:
  34. Health, Social Care and Sport Committee, National Assembly for Wales. Inquiry into primary care: Clusters. 2017. Available from:
  35. British Medical Association. The primary care network handbook. BMA; 2019.
  36. Bickerdike L, Booth A, Wilson PM, Farley K, Wright K. Social prescribing: Less rhetoric and more reality. A systematic review of the evidence. BMJ Open. 2018(1); 7(4):e013384.
  37. Alderwick HA GL, Fichtenberg CM, Adler NE. Social prescribing in the U.S. and England: Emerging interventions to address patients’ social needs. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2018; 54(5): 715–8.
  38. National Association of Link Workers. Getting to know the link worker workforce: Understanding link workers knowledge, skills, experiences and support needs. Connect Link; 2019. Available from:
  39. NHS Digital. General practice workforce, final 30 September 2018, experimental statistics. 2018. Available from:
  40. Kontopantelis E, Mamas M, van Marwijk H, Ryan AM, Bower P et al. Chronic morbidity, deprivation and primary medical care spending in England in 2015–16: A cross-sectional spatial analysis. BMC Medicine. 2018; 16(1): 19.
  41. Campbell D. Poor lose doctors as wealthy gain them, new figures reveal. Guardian; 20 May 2018. Available from:
  42. Gershlick B, Fisher R. A worrying cycle of pressure for GPs in deprived areas [blog]. 8 May 2019. The Health Foundation; 2019. Available from:
  43. Wickware C. Revealed: 450 GP surgeries have closed in the last five years 2018. Pulse; 30 May 2018. Available from: