The authors acknowledge NHS Digital, the Office for National Statistics and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) for providing data and guidance on data usage and referencing. The authors are also grateful for background information provided by the Office of Manpower Economics, the Department of Health and Social Care, NHS England and NHS Improvement, NHS Employers and NHS Providers in supporting discussions, as well as additional peer review of international comparisons data by the OECD. Further, the authors are grateful for background information provided by national nurses’ associations in Australia, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Sweden and the United States.

In addition, the authors would like to thank REAL Centre and wider Health Foundation colleagues for their input, support and guidance, with particular thanks to:

  • Elaine Kelly, Anita Charlesworth, Charles Tallack, Omar Idriss, Giulia Boccarini and Jennifer Dixon who reviewed the report
  • members of the Health Foundation communications team: Simon Perry, Sarah Witts, Kate Addison, Sean Agass, Pete Stilwell and Creina Lilburne.

Errors and omissions remain the responsibility of the authors alone.

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