The authors would like to express their gratitude to those who gave up their time to support this work. This paper would not have been possible without Jo Bibby, who conceived the original idea for this work and provided invaluable thought leadership throughout.

Thanks also to our advisory group, those who peer reviewed this work and colleagues at NHS England and NHS Improvement for providing thoughtful comments on early drafts of this report. We would also like to thank colleagues at the Health Foundation for their support and guidance during the research and production of this report, including Ruth Thorlby, Ben Gershlick, Laura Wallace, Josh Kraindler, Yannish Naik and Tim Horton. Errors and omissions remain the responsibility of the authors alone.

This work draws on research by CLES and The Democracy Collaborative, funded by the Health Foundation, and we would like to thank Neil McInroy, Frances Jones, Tom Lloyd Goodwin, Ted Howard and Katie Parker for their collaboration throughout.