1. Øvretveit J. Does improving quality save money? A review of the evidence of which improvements to quality reduce costs to health service providers. London: Health Foundation, 2009.
  2. See, for example: the Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust Public Inquiry, 2013. See also:;
  3. Institute of Medicine. Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21st century. Washington DC: National Academy Press, 1990, p244.
  4. Available at:
  5. See:
  6. A useful website for an overview of the history of quality improvement is:
  7. Juran J. Quality control handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1951.
  8. Feigenbaum AV. Total quality control. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961.
  9. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement has a number of useful tools, including Ishikawa’s cause and effect tool, available at:
  10. Ishikawa K. What is total quality control? The Japanese way. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, 1985. Ishikawa K. Introduction to quality control. London: Chapman & Hall, 1990.
  11. Deming WE. Out of the crisis. Cambridge, MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Center for Advanced Engineering Study, 1986.
  12. Deming WE. The new economics for industry, government, and education. Cambridge, MA: the MIT Press, 2000.
  13. Berwick D, Godfrey AB, Roessner J. Curing health care: new strategies for quality improvement. Hoboken: Jossey-Bass, 1990. Berwick D. Escape fire: designs for the future of health care. Hoboken: Jossey-Bass, 1990.
  18. See, for example:
  19. See, for example:
  20. For more information, see:
  21. See:
  22. For example, see: and:
  23. Dixon-Woods M, McNicol S, Martin G. Overcoming challenges to improvement. London: Health Foundation, 2012.